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Monthly Archives: January 2017

Cell Phones May Cause Brain Cancer

Cell phones may cause brain cancer, a panel of experts reporting to the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Tuesday.

After reviewing dozens of studies that explored a possible link between cancer and the ubiquitous hand-held phones, the experts classified cell phones as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” and placed them in the same category as the pesticide DDT and gasoline engine exhaust.

The panel determined that an increased risk for glioma, a malignant form of brain cancer, appears associated with wireless phone use.

Globally, it’s estimated that 5 billion cell phones are in use. “The number of users is large and growing, particularly among young adults and children,” the International Agency for Research on Cancer said in a news release issued Tuesday.

The IARC made the announcement in Lyons, France, based on the work of 31 scientists from 14 countries. It will present its findings to the WHO, which may then issue its recommendations on safe cell phone use.

Experts said children are especially vulnerable.

“Children’s skulls and scalps are thinner. So the radiation can penetrate deeper into the brain of children and young adults. Their cells are dividing at a faster rate, so the impact of radiation can be much larger,” Dr. Keith Black, chairman of neurology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, told CNN.

Until Tuesday’s announcement, the WHO had said that cell phones were safe to use.

The international experts behind Tuesday’s announcement met for eight days to review exposure data, studies of cancer in humans and in experimental animals, and other relevant data, looking for associations between cancer and the type of electromagnetic radiation found in cell phones, televisions and microwaves.

Dr. Christopher Wild, director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, said this new paper is important “first and foremost just because of the large number of users worldwide that have access now to this technology.”

Also, the scientists found notable gaps in the existing research, he said, which “suggest interesting areas of future research that will improve the evidence base which we have in order to make decisions about the usage of mobile phones in the future.”

Responding to Tuesday’s announcement, John Walls, vice president of public affairs for CTIA-The Wireless Association, a trade group representing the wireless industry said: “Today, an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) working group in Lyon, France categorized radiofrequency fields from cellphones as possibly carcinogenic based on ‘limited evidence.’ IARC conducts numerous reviews and in the past has given the same score to, for example, pickled vegetables and coffee. This IARC classification does not mean cell phones cause cancer. Under IARC rules, limited evidence from statistical studies can be found even though bias and other data flaws may be the basis for the results.

“The IARC working group did not conduct any new research, but rather reviewed published studies,” Walls added in a news release. “Based on previous assessments of the scientific evidence, the Federal Communications Commission has concluded that ‘[t]heres no scientific evidence that proves that wireless phone usage can lead to cancer.’ The Food and Drug Administration has also stated that ‘[t]he weight of scientific evidence has not linked cell phones with any health problems.'”

There has been conflicting research in recent years on the health hazards posed by cell phones. As recently as February, British researchers reported that cell phones do not increase the risk of brain cancer.

Their analysis of data on newly diagnosed cases of brain cancer in England between 1998 and 2007 — when cell phone use was climbing — revealed no statistically significant change in the incidence of brain cancers in men or women, said the University of Manchester researchers.

There was a very small increase (0.6 more cases per 100,000 people) in the incidence of cancers of the brain’s temporal lobe. That works out to 31 extra cases per year in England’s population of nearly 52 million people, the researchers said.

But the study authors also noted that cancers of the brain’s parietal lobe, cerebrum and cerebellum in English men fell slightly during the study period.

7 Little Ways to Cut Cell Phone Cancer Risk

Does the World Health Organization’s statement that cell phones may cause cancerhave you thinking twice about making that phone call?

Of course it’s alarming to think that something that’s become such a can’t-live-without can be linked to brain cancer, but there’s a lot even the most cell phone-addicted people can do to minimize health risks.

Any potential links to cancer stem from the low levels of radiation cell phones emit. Lower your exposure to the radiation, and you’ll reduce the potential links to cancer or other health problems:

  1. Use a headset. Sounds obvious, but headsets emit much less radiation than cell phones do, according to the Environmental Working Group (EWG), and they keep your cell phone away from your head. The farther away you are from a source of radiation, the less damage it can do.
  2. Text when you can. Your constantly texting teens are onto something: Cell phones use less energy (and emit less radiation) when you text than when you talk, says the EWG. Texting also keeps the radiation source farther away from your brain.
  3. Use cell phones for FYI-only calls. Don’t use your cell phone for that long overdue, hour-long catch-up with your sister. Keep calls as short as possible —Do you need me to get the dry cleaning, honey? — and switch to a landline if they’re veering off into chitchat territory.
  4. Watch the bars. Can you hear me now? If you’re struggling to maintain a connection, ditch the call and wait until you have better service. When your phone has fewer signal bars, it has to work harder (and, therefore, emit more radiation) to connect.
  5. Keep the phone away from your ear when you can. EMF-Health.comrecommends waiting for the call to connect before you bring the phone to your ear, which minimizes radiation exposure. And when you talk, tilt the phone away from your ear and bring it in close when you’re listening. That’s because the radiation levels are “significantly less when a cell phone is receiving signals than when it is transmitting,” Lin Zhong, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at Rice University in Houston, told The New York Times.
  6. Don’t make calls in elevators or cars. You already it’s dangerous to talk and drive; EMF-Health.com says that cell phones use more power to establish a connection in enclosed metal spaces like cars and elevators.
  7. Make sure your kids use the landline. It seems like even toddlers are using cell phones today, but experts say kids are the most vulnerable to potential radiation dangers. The EWG says children’s brains absorb twice as much cell phone radiation as adults. According to The New York Times, health authorities in Britain, France, Germany, and Russia all have warnings against letting children use cell phones.

The Basics of Bell’s Palsy

Imagine waking up in the morning, looking in the mirror and realizing that one side of your face is sagging, your eyelid is drooping, and you are drooling out the side of your mouth. If you have ever had this experience, you were probably experiencing Bell’s palsy.

Bell’s palsy is the most common cause of facial paralysis. Although Bell’s palsy duration is usually limited to a few months, the symptoms can certainly be disturbing.

What Causes Bell’s Palsy?

Bell’s palsy can occur at any age but is most common at around age 40. Men and women are affected equally. Every year about 15 to 30 people out of 100,000 get Bell’s palsy. The cause of Bell’s palsy is not completely understood but is believed to be caused by a viral infection that causes swelling of the facial nerve.

The two facial nerves are large nerves that branch out across the face and carry electrical impulses to the facial muscles. Each nerve contains 7,000 nerve fibers. When the nerve swells in response to an infection, the electrical impulses get weak and the facial muscles lose their movement. Branches of the facial nerve are also important for tear and saliva production, and they transmit some taste sensations from the tongue.

Although the exact cause of Bell’s palsy is not always clear, certain risk factors are known to increase the chances of getting Bell’s palsy. Risk factors include:

  • Being exposed to herpes simplex virus type 1
  • Having diabetes
  • Being pregnant
  • Having had a previous episode of Bell’s palsy

Bell’s Palsy Symptoms

Bell’s palsy usually only affects one side of the face. Bell’s palsy symptoms usually start suddenly and reach their peak in 48 hours. Symptoms can range from partial to total paralysis. Common symptoms include:

  • Weakness of the facial muscles causing loss of facial expression
  • Twitching of the facial muscles
  • Drooping of the eyelid with inability to close the eye
  • Dryness of the eye and mouth
  • Loss of taste
  • Drooling from the corner of the mouth
  • Difficulty speaking clearly

Diagnosis and Treatment of Bell’s Palsy

The typical symptoms and sudden onset of one-sided facial weakness are sufficient to make a diagnosis of Bell’s palsy. Other types of diagnostic tests are not usually needed. If Bell’s palsy does not seem to be getting better over time, a referral to a neurologist or an ear, nose, and throat doctor may be needed to rule out other causes of facial paralysis such as tumors, Lyme disease, or multiple sclerosis.

Even without treatment, more than 80 percent of people with Bell’s palsy start to get better within three weeks. An early sign of improvement is often the return of taste. Bell’s palsy duration is rarely longer than six months. Some studies show that treatment can shorten Bell’s palsy duration and improve symptoms. Bell’s palsy treatment includes:

  • Steroids. The anti-inflammatory drug prednisone may be used to reduce swelling of the facial nerve. Prednisone may be started as soon as the diagnosis is made and tapered off over 10 days.
  • Antiviral drugs. Oral acyclovir (Zovirax) or valacyclovir (Valtrex) may be started within three days of Bell’s palsy symptoms and continued for seven days.
  • Eye care. Taping the eye closed, using an eye patch, and using artificial tears are helpful treatments to prevent eye irritation from excessive dryness.
  • Physical therapy. Messaging the face, exercising facial muscles, and applying gentle heat may help recovery.

Bell’s palsy can be a frightening experience. The good news is that even without treatment, most Bell’s palsy symptoms go away completely in time. Your primary care doctor can help you manage Bell’s palsy. In cases where symptoms are not improving, an ear, nose, and throat or neurological specialist should be consulted to rule out other causes of facial paralysis.

The Truth About Everyday Radiation Exposure

Japan’s ongoing nuclear crisis understandably has people around the world worried about radiation exposure and the potential health risks it may pose. According to the latest reports, radiation from Japan was detected in Southern California late this week, but experts are quick to point out that the levels are far from dangerous. The readings were “about a billion times beneath levels that would be health threatening,” a diplomat with access to United Nations’ radiation tracking told the Associated Press.

Nor is it unexpected. “Whenever radioactive particles get in the atmosphere, they have the potential to spread around the world,” says James Thrall, MD, president of the American College of Radiology. “But they get diluted as they travel, so they’re unlikely to pose any real health problem.”

In fact, we’re probably exposed to significantly more radiation every day than the miniscule fallout arriving from Japan. Here’s a quick tutorial on radiation to put our collective anxiety in perspective:

What Is Radiation?

Radiation is a form of energy in waves. It exists on a spectrum, with low-frequency radiation (from radio waves and microwaves) on the low end and high-frequency radiation (from gamma rays and x-rays) on the high end. All radiation affects the cells in our bodies to some extent, but the lower the frequency of the waves and the lower the exposure, the less dangerous it is.

To understand the risks of high-frequency radiation — the kind we’re talking about in this article — think back to high school physics: These waves have enough energy to knock electrons off molecules, which can cause damage to cell DNA that can ultimately lead to cancer.

How Are We Exposed to Radiation?

We encounter radiation each day from a variety of sources. The average American is exposed to about 6 millisieverts (mSv) of radiation annually, according to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Half of this typically comes from background radiation that occurs naturally in the environment, and half comes from medical tests, such as X-rays, mammograms, and CT scans.

According to Kelly Classic, MS, spokesperson for the Health Physics Society, sources of environmental radiation include:

  • Radioactive compounds in soil and building materials like concrete, brick, and stone
  • Radiation from outer space that your encounter when you fly on airplanes or visit high-altitude places
  • The mineral potassium in your own body (a small fraction of potassium, which our bodies need to function, is radioactive)
  • Radon gas in the home, which accounts for about 2 mSv of exposure each year, and is the largest contributor of background radiation

Finally, there’s the kind of radiation released during nuclear reactions, such as what’s disseminating from Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi plant.

Here’s a look at various sources of radiation exposure (dose of radiation in millisieverts (mSv)), according to data from the Health Physics Society and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). By way of comparison, a single dose of radiation below 0.01 mSv is considered negligible by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  • Banana: 0.0001
  • Dental X-ray: 0.005
  • Living within 50 miles of a nuclear power plant: 0.01 (per year)
  • A flight from New York to Los Angeles: 0.04
  • Smoking 1 ½ packs of cigarettes: 0.08
  • Chest X-ray: 0.1
  • Living at sea level: 0.25 (per year)
  • Mammogram: 0.3
  • Living in Denver: 0.5 (per year)
  • Abdominal CT scan: 14
  • Measures between reactors No. 3 and No. 4 during the March 15 explosion at the Fukushima plant: As high as 400 per hour

What Level of Radiation Exposure Is Safe?

It’s well-established that exposure to large amounts of radiation at once can cause acute sickness and even cancer. (A 1,000 mSv-dose can trigger acute radiation sickness, causing symptoms such as nausea and vomiting; 3,000 mSV can be lethal, according to Thrall.)

But there’s no good data on the long-term risks of the low levels of radiation to which we’re continually exposed.

According to the World Nuclear Association, annual exposure to 100 mSv or greater carries a measurable, though small, increase in cancer risk. Below that level, it’s believed that your body’s cells are able to heal themselves from radiation. “There are enzyme systems in the body that repair damage from these low levels of background radiation,” says Thrall.